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Chapron, G., Treves, A. (equal co-authors). Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore.Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283: 20152939. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.2939.

Link to 3-minute video in English and a version in French  here.

Our wildlife trust: see the blog posted by Project Coyote, for a quick and easy retelling of the U.S. public trust doctrine by Dr. Adrian Treves. The blog refers you to a scientific article: "Predators and the public trust" published in a major peer-reviewed, international journal, Biological Reviews


Open letter from 70 scientists and scholars to the government on wolf conservation. Dr. A. Treves and colleagues (74 and counting) recommended continuing federal protection for wolves under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the Great Lakes region and beyond. This letter rebuts a previous letter by 26 scientists that recommended the opposite (Mech et al.). We show how Mech et al. misunderstood the science and the law in three fundamental ways: (1) public attitudes about wolves and the ESA, (2) inadequacy of management by the states, and (3) legal requirements of the ESA. Our work leads to the conclusion that wolves should still remain protected under the ESA.
The scientists and scholars signing this letter have no financial interest in the production or outcomes of the letter. They acknowledge the help of many partners and media in disseminating their open letter. ?
Also see the letter to the editor of the Washington Post from 4 December 2015.


If you need further information about any of this material, please contact email Adrian Treves


Our Vision

We envision a balance between human needs and carnivore conservation worldwide.

To attain this vision, we create knowledge about human-carnivore coexistence through interdisciplinary research around the world.

We apply that knowledge to solve current conservation problems.

We share our findings with audiences worldwide.

For quick summaries of the carnivores we work with, click on the names below.

learn about wolves learn about bears

learn about tigers learn about pumas

learn about East African Carnivores

Large carnivores are the most challenging species with which to coexist. For millions of years, they competed with our ancestors for food and space. Humans were generally subordinate in this struggle. But, the past few hundred years have seen the tables turned. Now humans cause most carnivore mortality worldwide. We have degraded ecosystems as a result because large carnivores play essential roles in maintaining functioning, diverse ecosystems. Therefore large carnivores are among the most challenging to conserve.

Two species of large carnivores have gone extinct in recent times and most have suffered major population reductions. Loss of large carnivores disrupts ecosystems and depletes biodiversity, because of cascading influences on prey and smaller-bodied carnivores. The larger species of carnivores typically require vast areas to survive, thereby competing indirectly with people for space and resources. Direct competition is also apparent when carnivores prey on livestock or damage crops when people retaliate by clearing habitat or killing carnivores. Human causes of mortality predominate in virtually all large carnivore populations.

Mainly, people retaliate against carnivores for real and perceived threats to property, safety, or game. Thus, carnivore conservation has often depended on reducing human causes of mortality. Both private citizens and governments are implicated. Government-sponsored bounties, pest eradication campaigns, and trophy hunts extirpated carnivores across vast areas of many countries. Even in the last decade, private eradication efforts have occurred in many localities.

Large carnivores can be conserved within human-dominated areas, while also protecting people's livelihoods and safety. The solutions are never simple; indeed they can be maddeningly complex. But when we combine local knowledge with technical support and state-of-the-art research, we can balance the needs of people and wildlife.

Dr. Adrian Treves founded the Carnivore Coexistence Lab in April 2007. The following web pages outline CCL's current research efforts along with a sample of our recent findings.