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Treves, A. and M. Rabenhorst (0.21 Mb) (2017). Risk Map for Wolf Threats to Livestock still Predictive 5 Years after Construction. PLOS ONE: open access at https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180043


López-Bao*, J. V., G. Chapron and A. Treves* (2017).*equal co-authors (0.21 Mb) The Achilles heel of participatory conservation. Biological Conservation 212: 139–143: open access at DOI: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320716311259


Treves, A., Artelle, K.A., Darimont, C.T., Parsons, D.R. 2017. (3.8 Mb) Mismeasured mortality: correcting estimates of wolf poaching in the United States. Journal of Mammalogy 98(3): open access at DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyx052

Summary and FAQs (4 Mb)


For quick summaries of the carnivores we work with, click on the names below.

learn about wolves learn about bears

learn about tigers learn about pumas

learn about East African Carnivores

Large carnivores are the most challenging species with which to coexist. For millions of years, they competed with our ancestors for food and space. Humans were generally subordinate in this struggle. But, the past few hundred years have seen the tables turned. Now humans cause most carnivore mortality worldwide. We have degraded ecosystems as a result because large carnivores play essential roles in maintaining functioning, diverse ecosystems. Therefore large carnivores are among the most challenging to conserve.

Two species of large carnivores have gone extinct in recent times and most have suffered major population reductions. Loss of large carnivores disrupts ecosystems and depletes biodiversity, because of cascading influences on prey and smaller-bodied carnivores. The larger species of carnivores typically require vast areas to survive, thereby competing indirectly with people for space and resources. Direct competition is also apparent when carnivores prey on livestock or damage crops when people retaliate by clearing habitat or killing carnivores. Human causes of mortality predominate in virtually all large carnivore populations.

Mainly, people retaliate against carnivores for real and perceived threats to property, safety, or game. Thus, carnivore conservation has often depended on reducing human causes of mortality. Both private citizens and governments are implicated. Government-sponsored bounties, pest eradication campaigns, and trophy hunts extirpated carnivores across vast areas of many countries. Even in the last decade, private eradication efforts have occurred in many localities.

Large carnivores can be conserved within human-dominated areas, while also protecting people's livelihoods and safety. The solutions are never simple; indeed they can be maddeningly complex. But when we combine local knowledge with technical support and state-of-the-art research, we can balance the needs of people and wildlife.

Dr. Adrian Treves founded the Carnivore Coexistence Lab in April 2007. The following web pages outline CCL's current research efforts along with a sample of our recent findings.