To see the abstract of each article, roll your mouse over the authors' names (in blue. If you have trouble accessing copy of articles, please email Adrian Treves.
Treves A, Paquet PC, Artelle KA, Cornman AM, Krofel M, Darimont CT. 2021. Transparency about values and assertions of fact in natural resource management. Frontiers in Conservation Science: Human-Wildlife Dynamics, 2:e631998, doc 10.3389/fcosc.2021.631998. For a short elevator speech and abstract, click here.
Louchouarn NX, Santiago-Ávila FJ, Parsons DR, Treves A. in press. Evaluating how lethal management affects poaching of Mexican wolves. Royal Society Open Science 8 (registered report):: 2003300.
We find that U.S. policy loosening Endangered Species Act (ESA) protections for Mexican wolves led to substantial increases in the hazard and incidence of cryptic poaching (illegal take followed by concealment of evidence such as destruction of radio-collar). We observed a shift from reported to cryptic poaching with concealment of evidence, i.e., driving the heightened illegal activity underground. The observed spike in cryptic poaching cannot be accounted for by migration, super-additive mortality following legal removals, or transmitter failures. In this context, we are concerned by the USFWS practice of sharing telemetry frequencies with members of the public that may have competing interests that oppose wolf recovery. Wolf population growth slowed or stopped during those periods of reduced ESA enforcement. We recommend the USFWS increase protections for Mexican wolves in a revised 10j rule and eliminate other actions that might abridge protections afforded by the ESA. We recommend agencies report missing marked animals in all endangered species programs worldwide, so evaluation of cryptic poaching and other causes of mortality can be done scientifically and transparently.
Besides its relevance for the endangered Mexican wolves of Arizona and New Mexico that are perilously close to extinction in the wild, our paper is noteworthy for its relevance to national wolf delisting. It is also relevant to nationwide concerns over the reproducibility crisis, because it is a new form of registered report. The methods were subject to peer review before the analyses were done. That approach is intended to reduce three kinds of bias in scientific publication that have been blamed in part for the reproducibility crisis in science broadly. The first sort of bias it combats is researcher bias in which methods drift as results unfold. The second bias it combats is confirmation bias (reviewers and authors tending to approve or communicate results that support their preconceptions) and publication bias (editors and reviewers being unimpressed by null results or counter-intuitive results and being overly impressed by flashy results). The idea is that the journal agrees to publish no matter the results as long as the methods-based peer review and the final manuscript followed the registered methods strictly. Therefore, the current analysis presents the highest standards of scientific evidence ever brought to bear on the question ‘Does killing buy goodwill?’ and the answer is no.
In 2018, we published our ethic of public trusteeship, non-anthropocentric, multispecies justice that presents a method to give voice to future generations and to nonhumans when decisions are made to allocate or preserve nature. Start here with the original article Treves, A., Santiago-Ávila, F., Lynn, W.S. (equal co-authors) 2018. Just Preservation. Biological Conservation 229: 134-141.
The newest discussion of Just Preservation played out in 2021 in in the journal Animal Sentience, which included commentaries by several dozen colleagues and our replies to each: F.J. Santiago-Ávila, A. Treves (equal co-authors), W.S. Lynn, Just preservation, trusteeship and multispecies justice. Animal Sentience 393. This continues our work on trusteeship, legal standing for nonhumans, and future generations, and equitable consideration of nonhumans as members of our moral community.
To see the abstract of each article, roll your mouse over the authors' names (in blue. If you have trouble accessing copy of articles, please email Adrian Treves.
Treves, A. and N. J. Balster (2021 pre-proof). The effect of extended student hours on performance of students in an interdisciplinary, introductory undergraduate ecology course. North American Colleges and Teachers of Agriculture Journal, in press.
Tshabalala, T., McManus, J., Treves, A., Masocha, V., Faulconbridge, S., Schurch, M., Goets, S., Smuts, B. 2021. Leopards and mesopredators as indicators of mammalian species richness across diverse landscapes of South Africa. Ecological Indicators 121, 107201.
Masters thesis by Abi Fergus, M.S. December 2020.
Darimont, C.T., Hall, H., Mihalik, I., Artelle, K.A., Eckert, L., Paquet, P. Large carnivore hunting and the social license to hunt. Conservation Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13657.
Carroll, C. Carroll, C., Rohlf, D.J., von Holdt, B.M., Treves, A., Hendricks, S.A. 2020. Wolf delisting challenges demonstrate need for an improved framework for conserving intraspecific variation under the Endangered Species Act. Bioscience biaa125,1-12. doi:10.1093/biosci/biaa125. .
With a podcast from four of the authors to explain the analysis and recommendations, in the wake of 2020 Trump Administration rule to delist the gray wolf nationwide Listen here (55 minutes).
Treves, Louchouarn, Santiago-Ávila. 2020. Modelling concerns confound evaluations of legal wolf-killing. Biological Conservation. In press.
Treves_Santiago-Ávila. 2020.Myths and assumptions about human-wildlife conflict and coexistence. Conservation Biology 10.1111/cobi.13472
Treves 2020. Elephants and pandemics. Animal Sentience 28(20). URL
>Treves, A., Krofel M, Ohrens O and van Eeden 2019 Predator Control Needs a Standard of Unbiased Randomized Experiments With Cross-Over Design. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7:402-413. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2019.00462
Treves, A.2019. Scientific ethics and the illusion of naïve objectivity. Guest editorial in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7:1.
Treves, A. A. F. J. Santiago-Ávila, V. D. Popescu, P. C. Paquet, W. S. Lynn, C. T. Darimont, K. A. Artelle 2019. Trophy hunting: Insufficient evidence. Letter in Science 366(6464):435.
Ohrens, O., Bonacic, C., Treves, A. 2019. Non-lethal defense of livestock against predators: Flashing lights deter puma attacks in Chile. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 17(1):1-7. Gold standard (also platinum and silver standards!) experiments are explained at our new web page about
standards of evidence in animal research.
van Eeden, L., Eklund, A., Miller, J.R.B.,...17 co-authors... Treves, A. (equal first authors) 2018. Carnivore conservation needs evidence-based livestock protection. PLOS Biology https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005577
. 2018. Van Eeden, Treves, Ritchie. The Conversation. A short popular science summary of the above article.
Treves, A., Artelle, K.A., Paquet, P.C. 2018. Differentiating between regulations and hunting as conservation interventions. Conservation Biology (Accepted articles are
posted online prior to type-setting and publication in print.).
Santiago-Avila, F.J., Lynn, W.S., Treves, A. 2018. Inappropriate consideration of animal interests in predator management: Towards a comprehensive moral code. In Large Carnivore Conservation and Management: Human Dimensions and Governance, ed. T. Hovardos, Taylor & Francis, London.
Ohrens, O., Santiago-Avila, F.J., Treves, A.2019. The challenges of preventing real and perceived threats to livestock. In Human-Wildlife Interactions: Turning Conflict into Coexistence, eds. B. Frank, S. Marchini, J. Glikman, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Treves, A., K. A. Artelle, C. T. Darimont, W. S. Lynn, P. C. Paquet, F. J. Santiago-Avila, R. Shaw and M. C. Wood 018. Intergenerational equity can help to prevent climate change and extinction. Nature Ecology & Evolution DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0465-y.
Supporting Data. Credit: Jen Burgess @jenburgessart Credit: Jen Burgess @jenburgessart Hallmarks of science missing from North American wildlife hunting and trapping plans.
Artelle, K.A., Reynolds, J.D., Treves, A. Walsh, J.C., Paquet, P.C., Darimont, C.T. 2018. Hallmarks of science missing from North American wildlife management. Science Advances. 2018.
short video explaining the findings
Santiago-Avila, F.J., Cornman, A.M., Treves, A. 2018. Killing wolves to prevent predation on livestock may protect one farm but harm neighbors. PLOS One here.
Chapron, G. and A. Treves 2016a and b, 2017a and b. We first showed that Michigan and Wisconsin wolf population growth slowed whenever the government liberalized wolf-killing and the slow-down was proportional to the length of time that culling was liberalized, regardless of how many wolves were killed. Then starting a lively debate, Pepin et al. tried to counter our hypothesis but did not succeed in our opinion. That debate improved our model which strengthened its findings, also in the pages of Proceedings of the Royal Society B Strengthening our findings. and
a 2017 rebuttal. Then Stien and Olson and his colleagues tried again.
Those critiques only made our evidence stronger. Olson et al. in particular weakened their own position. Furthermore, independent findings for Mexican wolves presented by David Parsons in 2014 corroborate the idea that relaxing protections slows population growth more than expected.
Treves A, Rabenhorst MF. 2017. Risk Map for Wolf Threats to Livestock still Predictive 5 Years after Construction. PLoS ONE: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0180043.
Lopez-Bao, J.V., Chapron, G., Treves, A. 2017. The Achilles heel of participatory conservation. Biological Conservation 212: 139-143.
Treves, A., Artelle, K.A., Darimont, C.T., Parsons, D.R. 2017. (3.8 Mb) Mismeasured mortality: correcting estimates of wolf poaching in the United States. Journal of Mammalogy 98(3): open access at DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyx052.
Summary and FAQs (4 Mb)
Darimont, C.T., Paquet, P., Treves, A., Artelle, K.A., Chapron, G. 2018. Political populations of large carnivores.Conservation Biology 32(3):747-749.
Carroll, C., B. Hartl, G.T. Goldman, D.J. Rohlf, A. Treves, J.T. Kerr, E.G. Ritchie, R.T. Kingsford, K.E. Gibbs, M. Maron, J.E.M Watson. 2017. Defending scientific integrity in conservation policy processes: lessons from Canada, Australia, and the United States. Conservation Biology DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12958
Treves, A., J.A. Langenberg, J.v. López-Bao, M.F. Rabenhorst 2017. (1.8 Mb)Gray wolf mortality patterns in Wisconsin from 1979 to 2012 Journal of Mammalogy 98(1): DOI:10.1093/jmammal/gyw145
Treves, A., Krofel, M., McManus, J. (equal co-authors).2016. Predator control should not be a shot in the dark. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment14: 380-388.
short video explaining the findings
In a nutshell:
• Predator control methods to prevent livestock loss have rarely been subject to rigorous tests using the “gold standard” for scientific inference (random assignment to control and treatment groups with experimental designs that avoid biases in sampling, treatment, measurement, or reporting).
• Across the controlled experiments that we systematically examined, higher standards of evidence were generally applied in tests of non-lethal methods than in tests of lethal methods for predator control.
• Non-lethal methods were more effective than lethal methods in preventing carnivore predation on livestock generally; at least two lethal methods (government culling or regulated, public hunting) were followed by increases in predation on livestock; zero tests of non-lethal methods had counterproductive effects.
• All flawed tests came from North America; ten of 12 flawed tests were published in three journals, compared to four of 12 tests with strong inference in those same journals.
• We recommend suspending lethal predator control methods that do not currently have rigorous evidence for functional effectiveness in preventing livestock loss until gold- standard tests are completed.
Treves, A., Bonacic, C.(equal co-authors). 2016. Humanity's Dual Response to Dogs and Wolves. Trends in Ecology and Evolution (TREE). doi:10.1016/j.tree.2016.04.006 Take-home message: The relationship between humans, dogs, and wolves has changed over more than 40,000 years in ways that reflect the ecology and evolved traits of all three species.
Ripple, W. With 41 co-authors authors including Treves. 2017. Conserving the World’s Megafauna and Biodiversity: The Fierce Urgency of Now. Bioscience. doi:10.1093/biosci/biw168
Ripple, W. With 43 co-authors including A. Treves 2017. Saving the World’s Terrestrial Megafauna. BioScience. doi: 10.1093/biosci/biw092.
Carter, N. H., J. López-Bao, J. Bruskotter, M. Gore, G. Chapron, A. Johnson, Y. Epstein, M. Shrestha, J. Frank, O. Ohrens and A. Treves2017. A conceptual framework for understanding illegal killing of large carnivores. Ambio 46(3): 251–264.
Treves, A., Chapron, G., Lopez-Bao, J.V., Shoemaker, S., Goeckner, A., Bruskotter, J.T. 2015. Predators and the Public Trust. Biological Reviews doi: 10.1111/brv.12227 Take-home messages: Democratic governments have a duty under the public trust to preserve wildlife for current and future generations without substantial impairment. Trust duties are fiduciary duties meaning transparent accounting and prudence at a minimum. Few trustees of predators have lived up these legal and ethical standards.
Krofel, M., Treves, A., López-Bao, J.V. Hunted carnivores at outsized risk. Science. 350: 6260. Take-home message: Large carnivores are particularly vulnerable to human-induced mortality and we still now little about how they respond..
Treves, A. Bruskotter, J.T. 2014. Tolerance for Predatory Wildlife. Science 344: 476-477. Take-home messages: Tolerance for predators did not reflect individual economic losses but rather social identity and peer group complaints. Intolerance for wolves and inclinations to poach wolves rose when the government culled wolves. Tolerance for wolves did not increase when wolf hunting and trapping season was implemented.
Ohrens, O., Treves, A., Bonacic, C. 2015. Relationship between rural depopulation and puma-human conflict in the high Andes of Chile. Environmental Conservation doi:10.1017/S0376892915000259.
Voyles, Z., Treves, A., Macfarland, D. 2015. Spatiotemporal effects of nuisance black bear management actions in Wisconsin. Ursus 26: 11-20.
Hogberg, J., Treves, A., Shaw, B., Naughton-Treves, L. 2015. Changes in attitudes toward wolves before and after an inaugural public hunting and trapping season: early evidence from Wisconsin’s wolf range. Environmental Conservation, doi 10.1017/S037689291500017X.
Browne-Nuñez, C., Treves, A., Macfarland, D., Voyles, Z., Turng, C. 2015. Tolerance of wolves in Wisconsin: A mixed-methods examination of policy effects on attitudes and behavioral inclinations. Biological Conservation 189: 59-71.
Olson, E.R., Treves, A., Wydeven, A.P., Ventura, S. 2014. Landscape predictors of wolf attacks on bear-hunting dogs in Wisconsin, USA. Wildlife Research 41: 584–597.
Bruskotter, J.T., Vucetich, J.A., Enzler, S., Treves, A., Nelson, M.P. 2013. Removing protections for wolves and the future of the U.S. Endangered Species Act (1973). Conservation Letters 7: 401-407.
Carnivore Management. pp. 83-90 in B.S. Steel editor. Science and Politics: An A-To-Z Guide to Issues and Controversies. CQ Press, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA. .
Treves, A., Naughton-Treves, L., Shelley, V. 2013.Longitudinal Analysis of Attitudes Toward Wolves. Conservation Biology 27: 315–323
Treves, A. 2012. Tolerant attitudes reflect an intent to steward: A Reply to Bruskotter and Fulton. Society and Natural Resources 25: 103-104.
Shelley, V., Treves, A., Naughton, L. 2011. Attitudes to Wolves and Wolf Policy Among Ojibwe Tribal Members and Non-tribal Residents of Wisconsin's Wolf Range. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 16: 397-413.
Treves, A., Bruskotter, J. 2011. Gray Wolf Conservation at a Crossroads. BioScience 61: 584-585.
2012. Bruskotter, J., Enzler, S., Treves, A. Rescuing Wolves from Politics: Wildlife as a Public Trust Resource. Response to Mech and Johns. Science (Wash., D.C.), Policy Forum 335: 795-796.
2011. Bruskotter, J., Enzler, S., Treves, A. Rescuing Wolves from Politics: Wildlife as a Public Trust Resource. Science (Wash., D.C.), Policy Forum 333(6051): 1828-1829.
Treves, A., Martin K.A. 2011. Hunters as stewards of wolves in Wisconsin and the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Society and Natural Resources 24: 984-994.
Treves, A., Martin K.A., Wydeven, A.P., Wiedenhoeft, J.E. 2011. Forecasting Environmental Hazards and the Application of Risk Maps to Predator Attacks on Livestock. Bioscience 61(6): 451-458.
Schloegel, C., Jones, T., Zug, B., Achig, L., Treves, A. 2011. Don Oso Program Develops Participatory Monitoring Protocol for Andean Bears in Southern Sangay National Park, Ecuador. International Bear News 20(2): 23-25.
Treves, A., Jones, S.M. 2010. Strategic trade-offs for wildlife-friendly eco-labels. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8(9): 491–498.
Treves, A., Kapp, K.J., Macfarland, D.M. 2010. American black bear nuisance complaints and hunter take. Ursus 21(1):30-42.
Treves, A., Mwima, P., Plumptre, A.J., Isoke, S. 2010. Camera-trapping forest-woodland wildlife of western Uganda reveals how gregariousness biases estimates of relative abundance and distribution. Biological Conservation. 143: 521-528.
Treves, A. 2009. Hunting for large carnivore conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology 46: 1350-1356.
Treves, A., Jurewicz, R., Naughton-Treves, L., Wilcove, D. 2009. The price of tolerance: wolf damage payments after recovery. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2009, 18(14):4003-4021.
Treves, A., Wallace, R.B., White, S. 2009. Participatory planning of interventions to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts. Conservation Biology 2009, 23(6): 1577-1587.
Treves, A., Plumptre, A.J., Hunter, L.T.B., Ziwa, J. 2009. Identifying a potential lion Panthera leo stronghold in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, and Parc National des Virunga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Oryx 43(1): 60-66. (Copyright Cambridge University Press
http://journals.cambridge.org/repo_A35fUJfB) and see the
Erratum we published as a correction to this manuscript.
Treves, A. 2008. Beyond Recovery: Wisconsin's Wolf Policy 1980-2008. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 13(5): 329-338.
Treves, A. 2008. Human-wildlife conflicts around protected areas. In Wildlife and Society: The Science of Human Dimensions. Manfredo, M., Vaske, J. J., Brown, P., Decker, D.J., Duke, E.A. eds. Island press, Washington, DC.
Treves, A., Martin, K.A., Wiedenhoeft, J.E., Wydeven, A.P. 2009. Gray wolf dispersal in the Great Lakes Region, in Recovery of Gray Wolves in the Great Lakes Region of the United States: an Endangered Species Success Story. Wydeven, A. P., Heske, E.H., Van Deelen, T. R. eds. Springer: New York.
Treves, A., Palmqvist, P. 2007. Reconstructing hominin interactions with mammalian carnivores (6.0 - 1.8 Ma) in Primate Anti-Predator Strategies. K. A. I. Nekaris, and S. L. Gursky, eds. Springer, New York.
Sillero-Zubiri, C., Sukumar, R., Treves, A. 2007. Living with wildlife: the roots of conflict and the solutions. In: Key Topics in Conservation Biology. D. MacDonald and K. Service, eds. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 266-272.
Treves, A., Wallace, R.B., Naughton-Treves, L., Morales, A. 2006. Co-managing human-wildlife conflicts: A review. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 11(6):1-14. Or you can read the
Treves, A., Andriamampianina, L., Didier, K., Gibson, J,. Plumptre, A., Wilkie, D., Zahler, P. 2006. A simple, cost-effective method for involving stakeholders in spatial assessments of threats to biodiversity. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 11(1): 43-54.
Treves, A., Naughton-Treves, L. 2005. Evaluating lethal control in the management of human-wildlife conflict. People and Wildlife, Conflict or Coexistence? Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S., Rabinowitz, A. eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 86-106.
Treves, A., Brandon, K. 2005. Tourism impacts on the behavior of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) at Lamanai, Belize. In Commensalism and Conflict: The primate-human interface. J. Paterson & J. Wallis, eds. American Society of Primatology, Norman, OK.
Naughton-Treves, L., Treves, A. 2005. Socioecological factors shaping local tolerance of crop loss to wildlife in Africa. People and Wildlife, Conflict or Coexistence? Woodroffe, R., Thirgood, S., Rabinowitz, A. eds. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 253-277.
Treves, A., Naughton-Treves, L. Harper, E., Mladenoff, D., Rose, R., Sickley, T., Wydeven, A. 2004. Predicting human-carnivore conflict: A spatial model derived from 25 years of wolf predation on livestock. Conservation Biology 18(1): 114-125.
Wydeven, A.P., Treves, A., Brost, B., Wiedenhoeft, J. 2004. Characteristics of wolf packs in Wisconsin: Identification of traits influencing depredation. Pp. 28-50 in People and Predators: From Conflict to Coexistence. N. Fascione, A. Delach, M. Smith, eds. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Treves, A., Karanth, K.U. 2003. Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology 17(6): 1491-1499.
Grossberg, R., Treves, A., Naughton-Treves, L. 2003. Incidental ecotourism at Lamanai, Belize: The incidental ecotourist - Measuring visitor impacts on endangered howler monkeys inhabiting an archaeological site in Belize. Environmental Conservation 30(1): 40-51.
Naughton-Treves, L., Grossberg, R., Treves, A. 2003. Paying for tolerance: The impact of livestock depredation and compensation payments on rural citizens' attitudes toward wolves. Conservation Biology 17(6): 1500-1511.
Naughton-Treves, L., Mena, J.L., Treves, A., Alvarez, N., Radeloff, V.C. 2003. Wildlife survival beyond park boundaries: The impact of swidden agriculture and hunting on mammals in Tambopata, Peru. Conservation Biology 17(4): 1106-1117.
Shivik, J.A., Treves, A., Callahan, M. 2003. Nonlethal techniques for managing predation: primary and secondary repellents. Conservation Biology 17(6): 1531-1537.
Treves, A., Jurewicz, R., Naughton-Treves, L., Rose, R., Willging, R., Wydeven, A. 2002. Wolf depredation on domestic animals in Wisconsin, 1976-2000. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:231-241.
Treves, A., Naughton-Treves, L. 1999. Risk and opportunity for humans coexisting with large carnivores. Journal of Human Evolution 36: 275-282.
Naughton-Treves, L., Treves, A., Chapman, C., Wrangham, R.W. 1998. Temporal patterns of crop raiding by primates: Linking food availability in croplands and adjacent forest. Journal of Applied Ecology 35(4): 596-606. For earlier articles about primate behavioral ecology,
please email Adrian Treves.