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Scientific Publications

To see the abstract of each article, roll your mouse over the authors' names (in blue. If you have trouble accessing copy of articles, please email Adrian Treves.

Treves A, Paquet PC, Artelle KA, Cornman AM, Krofel M, Darimont CT. 2021. Transparency about values and assertions of fact in natural resource management. Frontiers in Conservation Science: Human-Wildlife Dynamics, 2:e631998, doc 10.3389/fcosc.2021.631998. For a short elevator speech and abstract, click here.

Louchouarn NX, Santiago-Ávila FJ, Parsons DR, Treves A. in press. Evaluating how lethal management affects poaching of Mexican wolves. Royal Society Open Science 8 (registered report):: 2003300.

Elevator speech

We find that U.S. policy loosening Endangered Species Act (ESA) protections for Mexican wolves led to substantial increases in the hazard and incidence of cryptic poaching (illegal take followed by concealment of evidence such as destruction of radio-collar). We observed a shift from reported to cryptic poaching with concealment of evidence, i.e., driving the heightened illegal activity underground. The observed spike in cryptic poaching cannot be accounted for by migration, super-additive mortality following legal removals, or transmitter failures. In this context, we are concerned by the USFWS practice of sharing telemetry frequencies with members of the public that may have competing interests that oppose wolf recovery. Wolf population growth slowed or stopped during those periods of reduced ESA enforcement. We recommend the USFWS increase protections for Mexican wolves in a revised 10j rule and eliminate other actions that might abridge protections afforded by the ESA. We recommend agencies report missing marked animals in all endangered species programs worldwide, so evaluation of cryptic poaching and other causes of mortality can be done scientifically and transparently.

Besides its relevance for the endangered Mexican wolves of Arizona and New Mexico that are perilously close to extinction in the wild, our paper is noteworthy for its relevance to national wolf delisting. It is also relevant to nationwide concerns over the reproducibility crisis, because it is a new form of registered report. The methods were subject to peer review before the analyses were done. That approach is intended to reduce three kinds of bias in scientific publication that have been blamed in part for the reproducibility crisis in science broadly. The first sort of bias it combats is researcher bias in which methods drift as results unfold. The second bias it combats is confirmation bias (reviewers and authors tending to approve or communicate results that support their preconceptions) and publication bias (editors and reviewers being unimpressed by null results or counter-intuitive results and being overly impressed by flashy results). The idea is that the journal agrees to publish no matter the results as long as the methods-based peer review and the final manuscript followed the registered methods strictly. Therefore, the current analysis presents the highest standards of scientific evidence ever brought to bear on the question ‘Does killing buy goodwill?’ and the answer is no.

Just Preservation

In 2018, we published our ethic of public trusteeship, non-anthropocentric, multispecies justice that presents a method to give voice to future generations and to nonhumans when decisions are made to allocate or preserve nature. Start here with the original article Treves, A., Santiago-Ávila, F., Lynn, W.S. (equal co-authors) 2018. Just Preservation. Biological Conservation 229: 134-141.

The newest discussion of Just Preservation played out in 2021 in in the journal Animal Sentience, which included commentaries by several dozen colleagues and our replies to each: F.J. Santiago-Ávila, A. Treves (equal co-authors), W.S. Lynn, Just preservation, trusteeship and multispecies justice. Animal Sentience 393. This continues our work on trusteeship, legal standing for nonhumans, and future generations, and equitable consideration of nonhumans as members of our moral community.

To see the abstract of each article, roll your mouse over the authors' names (in blue. If you have trouble accessing copy of articles, please email Adrian Treves.

Treves, A. and N. J. Balster (2021 pre-proof). The effect of extended student hours on performance of students in an interdisciplinary, introductory undergraduate ecology course. North American Colleges and Teachers of Agriculture Journal, in press.

Tshabalala, T., McManus, J., Treves, A., Masocha, V., Faulconbridge, S., Schurch, M., Goets, S., Smuts, B. 2021. Leopards and mesopredators as indicators of mammalian species richness across diverse landscapes of South Africa. Ecological Indicators 121, 107201.

Masters thesis by Abi Fergus, M.S. December 2020.

Darimont, C.T., Hall, H., Mihalik, I., Artelle, K.A., Eckert, L., Paquet, P. Large carnivore hunting and the social license to hunt. Conservation Biology.

Carroll, C. Carroll, C., Rohlf, D.J., von Holdt, B.M., Treves, A., Hendricks, S.A. 2020. Wolf delisting challenges demonstrate need for an improved framework for conserving intraspecific variation under the Endangered Species Act. Bioscience  biaa125,1-12. doi:10.1093/biosci/biaa125. .

With a podcast from four of the authors to explain the analysis and recommendations, in the wake of 2020 Trump Administration rule to delist the gray wolf nationwide Listen here (55 minutes).

Treves, Louchouarn, Santiago-Ávila. 2020. Modelling concerns confound evaluations of legal wolf-killing. Biological Conservation. In press.

Treves_Santiago-Ávila. 2020.Myths and assumptions about human-wildlife conflict and coexistence. Conservation Biology 10.1111/cobi.13472

Treves 2020. Elephants and pandemics. Animal Sentience 28(20). URL

>Treves, A., Krofel M, Ohrens O and van Eeden 2019 Predator Control Needs a Standard of Unbiased Randomized Experiments With Cross-Over Design. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7:402-413. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2019.00462

Treves, A.2019. Scientific ethics and the illusion of naïve objectivity. Guest editorial in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7:1.

Treves, A. A. F. J. Santiago-Ávila, V. D. Popescu, P. C. Paquet, W. S. Lynn, C. T. Darimont, K. A. Artelle 2019. Trophy hunting: Insufficient evidence. Letter in Science 366(6464):435.

Ohrens, O., Bonacic, C., Treves, A. 2019. Non-lethal defense of livestock against predators: Flashing lights deter puma attacks in Chile. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 17(1):1-7. Gold standard (also platinum and silver standards!) experiments are explained at our new web page about

standards of evidence in animal research.

van Eeden, L., Eklund, A., Miller, J.R.B.,...17 co-authors... Treves, A. (equal first authors) 2018. Carnivore conservation needs evidence-based livestock protection. PLOS Biology

. 2018. Van Eeden, Treves, Ritchie. The Conversation. A short popular science summary of the above article.

Treves, A., Artelle, K.A., Paquet, P.C. 2018. Differentiating between regulations and hunting as conservation interventions. Conservation Biology (Accepted articles are

posted online prior to type-setting and publication in print.).

Santiago-Avila, F.J., Lynn, W.S., Treves, A. 2018. Inappropriate consideration of animal interests in predator management: Towards a comprehensive moral code. In Large Carnivore Conservation and Management: Human Dimensions and Governance, ed. T. Hovardos, Taylor & Francis, London.

Ohrens, O., Santiago-Avila, F.J., Treves, A.2019. The challenges of preventing real and perceived threats to livestock. In Human-Wildlife Interactions: Turning Conflict into Coexistence, eds. B. Frank, S. Marchini, J. Glikman, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Treves, A., K. A. Artelle, C. T. Darimont, W. S. Lynn, P. C. Paquet, F. J. Santiago-Avila, R. Shaw and M. C. Wood 018. Intergenerational equity can help to prevent climate change and extinction. Nature Ecology & Evolution DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0465-y.

Supporting Data. @Burgessart Credit: Jen Burgess @jenburgessart @Burgessart Credit: Jen Burgess @jenburgessart Hallmarks of science missing from North American wildlife hunting and trapping plans. infographic

Artelle, K.A., Reynolds, J.D., Treves, A. Walsh, J.C., Paquet, P.C., Darimont, C.T. 2018. Hallmarks of science missing from North American wildlife management. Science Advances. 2018.

short video explaining the findings

Santiago-Avila, F.J., Cornman, A.M., Treves, A. 2018. Killing wolves to prevent predation on livestock may protect one farm but harm neighbors. PLOS One here.

Chapron, G. and A. Treves 2016a and b, 2017a and b. We first showed that Michigan and Wisconsin wolf population growth slowed whenever the government liberalized wolf-killing and the slow-down was proportional to the length of time that culling was liberalized, regardless of how many wolves were killed. Then starting a lively debate, Pepin et al. tried to counter our hypothesis but did not succeed in our opinion. That debate improved our model which strengthened its findings, also in the pages of Proceedings of the Royal Society B Strengthening our findings. and

a 2017 rebuttal. Then Stien and Olson and his colleagues tried again.

Those critiques only made our evidence stronger. Olson et al. in particular weakened their own position. Furthermore, independent findings for Mexican wolves presented by David Parsons in 2014 corroborate the idea that relaxing protections slows population growth more than expected.

Treves A, Rabenhorst MF. 2017. Risk Map for Wolf Threats to Livestock still Predictive 5 Years after Construction. PLoS ONE:

Lopez-Bao, J.V., Chapron, G., Treves, A. 2017. The Achilles heel of participatory conservation. Biological Conservation 212: 139-143.

Treves, A., Artelle, K.A., Darimont, C.T., Parsons, D.R. 2017. (3.8 Mb) Mismeasured mortality: correcting estimates of wolf poaching in the United States. Journal of Mammalogy 98(3): open access at DOI:

Summary and FAQs (4 Mb)

Darimont, C.T., Paquet, P., Treves, A., Artelle, K.A., Chapron, G. 2018. Political populations of large carnivores.Conservation Biology 32(3):747-749.

Carroll, C., B. Hartl, G.T. Goldman, D.J. Rohlf, A. Treves, J.T. Kerr, E.G. Ritchie, R.T. Kingsford, K.E. Gibbs, M. Maron, J.E.M Watson. 2017. Defending scientific integrity in conservation policy processes: lessons from Canada, Australia, and the United States. Conservation Biology DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12958

Treves, A., J.A. Langenberg, J.v. López-Bao, M.F. Rabenhorst 2017. (1.8 Mb)Gray wolf mortality patterns in Wisconsin from 1979 to 2012 Journal of Mammalogy 98(1): DOI:10.1093/jmammal/gyw145

Treves, A., Krofel, M., McManus, J. (equal co-authors).2016. Predator control should not be a shot in the dark. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment14: 380-388.

short video explaining the findings

In a nutshell: